ABA 2 Spring 2011Terms and Definitions


Session #1 and Content Area 2


Analogue FA

Setup conditions to mimic real-life situations
Analogue FA conditions
Control, attention, escape from task, alone, tangible
Analytic
Characteristic of ABA. Scientifically based experimental designs are used to assess the effectiveness of interventions under study.
Antecedent Manipulation
Adding or removing antecedents that evoke behaviors. Include MO, SD, response effort
Antecedent Manipulations (5)
1. Antecedent control procedure
2. Establishing Operation
3. Present SDs for appropriate behavior
4. Remove SDs for inappropriate behavior
5. Increase response effort for inappropriate behavior
Applied
Characteristic of ABA. Focuses on behavior with social significance.
Applied Behavior Analysis vs Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Both use systematic manipulations and data analysis of individual organisms.
ABA: Behaviors of social significance to the person are investigated
EAB: Behaviors of no social significance of the person are investigated
Assumptions/Characteristics of Science
1. Determinism
2. Law of Parsimony
3. Scientific Manipulation
4. Empiricism
5. Philosophic Doubt
6. Replication
Automatic reinforcement
A reinforcer that is produced by the behavior without the participation of other people. For example, echolalia produces sounds that may maintain the behavior. It can be positive or negative reinforcement.
Behavioral
Characteristic of ABA. Behavior is the focus, not a hypothetical entity.
Behavioral Assessment
Assessment that examines the person's entire life in order to identify possible causes of the behavior in question. You may use descriptive assessment methods or functional analyses.
Behavioral assessment: 2 general kinds
1. Functional analysis
2. Descriptive assessment
Behavioral assessment: goal
Identify the function of behavior
Behavioral Technologies
Collection of procedures that have arisen from research and are applied to practical problems by practitioners. Ex: behavioral momentum is now implemented by many service providers in clinics, schools, and homes
Behaviorism
Philosophy of behavior that assumes behavior is a function of current and past environments as well as genetics.
Characteristics of ABA
1. Effective
2. Technological
3. Conceptually Systematic
4. Generality
5. Analytic
6. Applied
7. Behavioral
Conceptually Systematic
Characteristic of ABA. Procedures are tied to the basic principles of behavior.
Dependent Variable
Measure of behavior of interest
Determinism
Assumption of Science. Behavior is caused by some event.
Discrepency analysis
Compare data with those of norm group to determine changeworthiness of current behavior
Divided attention
When attention is diverted to another person, and not just withheld
Effective
Characteristic of ABA. Attempt to produce large enough effect that has an impact on the person's life.
Empiricism
Assumption of Science. Information is collected by objective observations
Explanatory Fiction/Circular Reasoning
Explaining behavior by using entity that lies within the behavior itself. (Eric is aggressive because he has an aggressive trait. Evidence of aggressive trait is his aggressive behavior)
Functional Analysis
Manipulation of environmental conditions to determine a functional relation between problem behavior and independent variables. Goal is to confirm hypothesis developed in descriptive assessment.
Functional analysis best practice: how many controls to use
Use one control for each test (pair wise)
Functional analysis best practice: natural vs contrived environments
Natural
Functional analysis best practice: role of supplemental information
To develop an hypothesis
Functional analysis best practice: what to do with tangible condition
If descriptive assessment does not indicate behavior occurs to produce tangibles, then don't include in test conditions.
Functional analysis models
AB and ABC
Functional analysis on high intensity behavior
1. Look at the latency to the first response in the condition. Then end the condition.
2. Or, just study precursors.
Functional analysis review: most common function
1. Escape from task
2. Attention
Functional analysis review: most common population studied
Kids with disabilities
Functional analysis review: most common setting
Inpatient settings
Functional analysis: AB model
FA in which an EO is manipulated (task vs no task; frequent attention vs low attention). No consequences are presented when behavior occurs.
Functional analysis: ABC model
FA in which EO and consequences are manipulated. Attention condition: FR 1 attention for problem behavior when attention deprived. Tangible condition: FR 1 tangible for problem behavior when tangible deprived.
Functional analysis: brief
An FA that involves 1 or 2 sessions
Functional analysis: limits
1. Does analogue apply to real life
2. Sometimes misses idiosyncratic variables
3. Doesn't always investigate complex variables
Functional Analysis: Multi-Component Manipulations
Arranging for particular conditions/situations (task, alone, enriched environment, etc) and measuring behavior. Reinforcers may be provided for problem behavior.
Functional analysis: Pair wise
When a particular test condition (e.g., FR 1 attention) has a corresponding control condition (e.g., continuous attention). A pair wise is often used to test a particular hypothesis (e.g., is the behavior maintained by attention?).
Functional analysis: role of precursors
Can be the DV if the problem behavior is dangerous.
Functional analysis: strengths
1. High degree of confidence in determining functional relations
Functional analysis: undifferentiated data
This suggests that the behavior is under multiple control (there is more than 1 operant) - or it may suggest that there is some idiosyncratic variable that is maintaining the behavior in all conditions.
Generality
Extent to which the results or functional relations will be observed if the experiment is changed in some way. Can be tested by implementing the Tx with different Ss, settings, behaviors, or species.
How to sample high rate behavior
Continuous recording for short period of time
Hypothesis testing (2 kinds)
1. Tx vs no Tx probes in real life setting
2. Set up FA conditions to test hypothesis
Inadequate Explanations of Behavior
1. Nominal Fallacy
2. Teleology
3. Reification
4. Circular reasoning
Independent Variable
Treatment or intervention
Kinds of descriptive assessments
1. Direct observation
2. Records review
3. Interviews
Law of Parsimony
Assumption of Science. The simplest explanation of behavior should be provided, all else being equal
Maladaptive behavior: problem with term "maladaptive"
It is assumed that behavior is adaptive, as it has a function.
Mentalistic Explanations of Behavior
Explanations that appeal to mental, unobservable processes. Ex: The child was aggressive due to his frustration with school.
Nominal Fallacy
Explaining behavior by naming or classifying it (The behavior is PICA to explain eating inedible objects)
Philosophic Doubt
Assumption of Science. Conclusions of science are tentative and can be revised as new data comes to light.
Precursors: role in assessment
In the case of high intensity behavior, precursors maybe assessed for safety reasons
Precursors: role in treatment
It can be useful to intervene, and treat, precursor behavior: 1) less restrictive procedures can be used 2) a given Tx maybe more effective, as precursors are earlier in the chain and therefore maybe weaker
Private Events
Behavior and/or stimuli that can only be observed by the person. (Ex: headaches) These behaviors and stimuli still must be explained by appealing to a history of environmental contingencies or biological processes.
Problem with analogue FA – with respect to generality of results
Analogue setting sometimes unlike real-life. Thus, poor generality.
Proximal MO example
1. Task presented to child --> problem behavior
Reasons why you might need to intervene
A. Danger to self, others
B. Safety hazard
C. Welfare in current environment
D. Behavior problem prevents access to less restrictive environment
Reification
Explaining behavior by appealing to non-existent entity (ID, ego, self, etc.)
Scientific Manipulation
Characteristic of Science. Systematically manipulating an event to see effects on behavior
Setting events: issue with term
Setting events is not technical term in the field. They typically refer to motivational operations
Social Significance
Characteristic of Applied Behavior Analysis whereas the behavior is socially significant to the person as well as the changes that occur.
Systematic Manipulation
Assumption of science. To see if an event affects behavior, the event is systematically manipulated and the effects on behavior are noted.
Technological
Characteristic of ABA. Provides written detail of procedures to permit replication of techniques in other settings.
Teleology
Explaining behavior by appealing to future, unexperienced events (I am doing my homework to graduate)
What is Behaviorism?
Philosophy of behavior that assumes that behavior is a function of past and current events as well as genetics.
What is the difference between Applied and Experimental Analysis?
The difference is that with Applied the behaviors have social significance to the person being investigated whereas with Experimental Analysis they do not.



Session #2 and Content Area 3


Abative effect

When a stimulus causes an immediate weakening of a response. Term applies to the effect of an S-delta or SDP.
ABCD analysis: what is D
Non-socially mediated consequence of behavior
Abolishing Operations
1. Decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus

2. Decreases the strength of the behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past
Adventitious Reinforcement
Refers to accidental reinforcement, results in superstitious behavior. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it. Ex: Pitcher wears socks and has good game, then wears sock at all games.
Antecedent
Event before the behavior
Audience
The individual(s) who provides the reinforcement for VB. The audience is an SD for the VB.
Avoidance behavior
Avoidance behavior that is reinforced by the postponement or avoidance of an aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer).
Behavior
Interaction of a person and his/her environment. Action of the muscles and/or glands
Behavior contrast: negative
When a treated behavior increases (e.g., ext or punishment), and the same untreated behavior in another situation decreases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied in multiple schedules.
Behavior contrast: positive
When a treated behavior decreases (e.g., ext or punishment), and the same untreated behavior in another situation increases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied in multiple schedules.
Categories of functions
Positive reinforcement (Direct and SM)

Negative reinforcement (Direct and SM)
COD
Change over delay - when a concurrent superstition occurs, a delay is programmed after the first behavior occurs to eliminate the superstition.
Collateral Measures
Measures of behaviors other than the primary target behaviors
Concurrent superstition
When a behavior (e.g., tantrum) is maintained by the reinforcer for another behavior (e.g., mand for food).
Conditioned Motivative Operations (CMO)
Have the same effects that motivative operations have, but are due to a conditioning history
Conditioned Reinforcer (punisher)
A consequence that increases (or decreases) the rate of behavior because it has been paired with another reinforcer (or punisher)
Consequence
Event that occurs after the behavior
Contingency
Dependency among behavior and stimuli or among stimuli. Can be expressed as an If-Then Statement.
Contingency Shaped Behavior
Behavior that occurs because it has resulted from direct exposure to contingencies.
CR
Conditioned Response – a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
CS
Conditioned Stimulus – a neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response through pairing with a US
Cycle
A description of behavior that specifies when a behavior begins and when it ends.
Dead Man’s Test
Test for evaluating whether a goal or objective is viable. If a dead man can do it, then it may not be a functional, useful goal.
Deprivation
Absence of reinforcer for a period of time, thereby making that event more effective as a reinforcer.
Descriptive Assessment
Includes: records review, interviews of clients or significant others, and direct observations. The goal is to identify patterns of behavior, topographies and frequencies in order to develop an hypothesis
Discrete Trials
An instructional method wherein the client is presented with formal opportunity to perform behavior. Consequence is provided depending on behavior.
Discriminated Operant
Behavior that requires some "opportunity" or specific antecedent to occur. Ex: in order to follow directions, there must first be a direction given.
Discrimination
Refers to a change in observed behavior when antecedent stimuli are changed
Discrimination Training
Reinforcing a behavior in the presence of some antecedent and extinguishing (or punishing) the behavior in the absence of the antecedent.
Echoic
Verbal behavior under antecedent control of prior verbal stimulus. Point to point correspondence between the antecedent stimulus and the response. (imitative behavior)
Environment
Entire constellation of stimuli that can affect a person (includes both internal/external)
Escape behavior
Escape behavior is behavior that is reinforced by escaping from a aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer)
Escape Extinction
Extinction of a negatively reinforced behavior. Withholding escape.
Establishing Operation
1. Increases the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus

2. Increases the strength of the behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past
Evocative effect
When a stimulus causes an immediate strengthening of a response. Term applies to the effect of an SD, CS, or US.
Extinction
Withholding a stimulus that normally occurs after a behavior, resulting in a decrease in the rate of behavior.
Extinction Side-Effects
Extinction burst, emotional behavior, aggression, increase in variety of topographies, increase in intensity of behavior
Free Operant
Behavior that can occur at anytime, given some motivation.
Functional Response Definition
Includes the topography of response as well as the functional antecedents and/or consequences.
Function-altering
The concept that conditioning (and rules) alters the function of stimuli. For example, discrimination training creates SDs. And, reinforcement creates EO s.
Function-altering: Operant conditioning
Reinforcement alters the function of neutral stimuli and results in the emergence of SDs and EO s.
Function-altering: Respondent conditioning
The pairing of a NS and US results in a change of the NS function - it becomes a CS.
Function-altering: Rules
Rules create new CSs, SDs, conditioned reinforcers, EO s, etc.
Fundamental Characteristics of Behavior
1. Temporal locus

2. Temporal extent

3. Repeatability



Rate, Latency, Duration, and IRT are derived from these.
Generalization Gradient
A graph that shows the frequency of a behavior in various stimulus conditions, one of which is the "training" situation and then other similar but untrained "test" situations.
Incident method of pinpointing
Have caregiver report a specific incident of problem behavior, and derive the definition from the incident
Intraverbal
Verbal behavior evoked by some antecedent verbal stimulus, but without point to point correspondence (ex: red white and_____)
Mand
Verbal behavior that specifies its reinforcer and is evoked by some establishing operation. (asking for something)
Motivational Operation (2 effects)
1. Changes the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus

2. Changes the strength of behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past
Negative Punisher
Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, decreases the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will increase.
Negative Reinforcement
Process in which a stimulus is withdrawn after a behavior, and the rate of the behavior increases.
Negative Reinforcer
Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, increases the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will decrease.
NS
Neutral Stimulus – stimulus that does not elicit a response prior to conditioning
Operant
A collection of responses with a common effect on the environment. Ex: child may do a variety of things to obtain attention.
Operant Conditioning
Kind of learning where a class of behavior (operant) is modified by changing its consequences.
Pinpoint behavior
Objective definition of the behavior in question
Positive Punisher
A stimulus that when presented after a behavior, decreases the rate of behavior. The IRTs would increase.
Positive Reinforcement
Process in which a stimulus is presented after a behavior and the rate of the behavior increases. The IRTs would decrease.
Positive Reinforcer
Stimulus that when presented after a behavior, increases the rate of the behavior. Note that the IRT will decrease.
Primary Reinforcer
Reinforcer effective without previous experience (food, water)
Reasons why you might need to intervene
A. Danger to self, others
B. Safety hazard
C. Welfare in current environment
D. Behavior problem prevents access to less restrictive environment
Reflexive CMO
Have their effects because their presence signals a "worsening" or "improvement" of conditions. In the former, their offset is reinforcing. In the latter, their offset is punishing.
Resistance to Extinction
The extent to which behavior persists when the maintaining reinforcer is withheld. Abbreviation: RTE
Respondent (classical) Conditioning
Kind of learning in which one stimulus is paired with a second stimulus and, as a result, the first comes to elicit the same or similar response that the second elicits
Respondent Extinction
Decrease in the strength of a CR as a result of presenting the CS alone
Response
A single instance of a behavioral class.
Response Definition
Description of a response that is in objective and observable terms
Response Generalization
Effects of a contingency spread to responses not yet associated with the contingency.
Rule-Governed Behavior
Behavior resulting from rules rather than direct exposure to contingencies. For example a person may put together a bike using the instruction manual.
Rules
Contingency-specifying stimuli that describe relations between stimuli or between stimuli and behavior
Satiation
Decrease in responding due to the reduced effectiveness of the reinforcer, because the person has received too much of it.
Scatterplot
A chart that shows occurrences of behavior in a given time frame
SD
Stimulus that 1. evokes a behavior 2. because that behavior has been reinforced in the presence of the stimulus.
S-delta
A stimulus that:
1. suppresses a behavior
2. because that behavior has been extinguished in the presence of the stimulus
SDP
Stimulus that
1. decreases or suppresses a behavior
2. because that behavior has been punished in the presence of the stimulus.
Sensory Extinction
Extinction of a behavior maintained by sensory reinforcers. The sensory reinforcers are withheld.
Skinner’s Verbal Behavior
A system of language that classifies verbal behavior according to its function.
Social Extinction
Extinction of a behavior maintained by social reinforcers. Withholding social reinforcement.
Social Learning Theory
Theory of learning that posits learning occurs as a result of observations that subsequently affect the person through cognitive mediational processes.
Spontaneous Recovery
Following an extinction session, a temporary re-appearance of the behavior in the beginning of the next extinction session. It is thought that the re-appearance is due to the relative novelty of the "beginning of the session" that was only briefly experienced in the previous session.
Stimulus
An energy change in the environment that affects a person through his/her senses.
Stimulus Class
Collection of stimuli with a common characteristic. Ex: any stimulus that evokes tantrums, or any stimulus of a certain wavelength.
Stimulus Control
The extent to which a behavior occurs when the antecedent stimulus is presented. EX: Mom has stimulus control over a child's tantrums to the extent that the child tantrums in the presence of mom, and does not tantrum in her absence.
Stimulus Generalization
Effects of a contingency spread to stimuli not yet associated with the contingency.
Superstitious Behavior
Behavior that occurs due to accidental or adventitious reinforcement. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it.
Surrogate CMO
A surrogate CMO has its effect because of a history of pairing with an MO, and these effects mimic those of the MO.
Tact
Verbal behavior that is evoked by some non-verbal environmental stimulus (naming)
Target Behavior
Behavior to be changed.
Textual
Verbal behavior evoked by some written stimulus with some point to point correspondence
Topographical Response Definition
Includes only description of the form, or topography, of the response.
Topography of Response
Form of response (e.g. kicking, hitting,)
Transitive CMO
Change the reinforcing value of some other stimulus, and change the strength of behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past.
Trigger analysis
Examine the evocative effects of a particular antecedent stimulus
Unconditioned Reinforcer
A reinforcer that is effective without previous experience. Ex: food, drinks
UR
Unconditioned Response- response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
US
Unconditioned Stimulus – stimulus that elicits a behavior w/o any history.
Verbal behavior
Behavior that is maintained by reinforcement mediated by another person.



Session #3 and Content Area 4


Baseline

Pre-intervention assessment that is used to refine recording procedures, design the intervention and provide data with which to compare intervention data when evaluating intervention effects.
Behavioral view of “sensory defensiveness”
Tactile stimuli are negative reinforcers
Categories of functions
Positive reinforcement (Direct and SM)

Negative reinforcement (Direct and SM)
Complete Behavioral Support Plan
4 Elements: motivational operations, discriminative control, replacement behaviors and consequence manipulations
Conditional probability
The likelihood of an event occurring, given another event (e.g., how often a behavior occurs, given an antecedent). Formula: #A--> B/ # A OR # B --> C/# B.
Contextual Variables (setting events)
Variables that are more generally present stimuli that are not necessarily manipulated as part of a behavior change program. May influence the efficacy of behavioral procedures. Ex: medical status, task variation, number of staff, etc.
Dependent Group Contingency
Reinforcer for a group depends on the behavior of a single person or small # of people
Direct Solutions to Behavior Problems
Solutions to behavior problems that do not involve formal behavior programs. Ex: treating a medical condition, removing an antecedent stimulus, changing some feature of the environment, etc.
Ecological Changes
Changing schedules, staffing patterns, activities, diet, etc.
How to compute conditional probability of A-B sequences
# A-->B / # A
How to compute conditional probability of B-C sequences
# B-->C / # B
Interventions that follow from assessment
Ecological changes, antecedent manipulation, replacement skills, change consequences of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors, emergency procedures, motivational operations
Lag 1
1. Lag 1 - Examines the liklihood that an event occurs given another event that occurs just before.

A --> B
Lag 2
2. Lag 2 - Examines the liklihood that an event occurs given another event that occurs 2 events prior.

A2 --> A --> B
Lag sequential analysis
Computations that examine the liklihood that an event will occur given another event.
Lag sequential analysis
When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be between an A and B, or between a B and C. Formula for A and B: Prob(A-->B)/Prob(A). Formula for B and C: Prob(B-->C)/Prob(B)
Lag sequential analysis: Lag 1
When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be between an A and B, or between a B and C. Lag 1 refers to the fact that the CP examines the A just before the B, or the C just after the B.
Lag sequential analysis: Lag 2
When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be between an A and B, or between a B and C. Lag 2 refers to the fact that the CP examines the A that is two antecedents before the B, or the C that is two consequences after the B.
Measure for task completion
# tasks and # tasks given
Naturalistic behavioral assesment
Behavioral assessment that occurs in the natural environment.
Pattern Analysis
Looking for patterns of behavior, noting any kind of correlation of behavior and some other factor. Ex: time of day, staff, curriculum, etc. Common type of pattern analysis is scatterplot.
Pica
Consuming inedible items (e.g., screws, bolts, small toys)
Replacement Skills
New skills that are taught to replace target behaviors in order to obtain the same reinforcer
Sequence Analysis
Identifying events that typically precede and follow a target behavior. Also called ABC Analysis.
Testing Hypothesis in Functional Analysis
Conditions are arranged to test the hypothesis. Ex: to assess behavior thought to occur for attention, compare condition in which attention is given after behavior with that where attention is withheld after behavior.



Session #6 & Content Area 5


Alternating Treating (multi-element) Design

Two or more treatments with their own signal, alternated across time - usually in the same day.
Between subject designs
Participants only receive 1 condition (e.g., BL or TX). The mean of each group is typically reported.
Changing Criterion
A design in which criterion in reinforcement is systematically changed. Control is shown when changes in behavior shadow changes in criterion.
Component Analysis
Taking treatment apart and identifying which component is the effective component. Can be accomplished by slowly taking each element out -or- by starting with a single element and slowly adding each element.
Confounding Variable
Uncontrolled variables or events that influence the outcome of an experiment. Often accompany the IV and thus are indistinguishable from the IV.
Correlation
Two events co-vary. One may cause the second, the second may cause the first, or both may be caused by a third variable.
Deductive Processes
Testing hypothesis by collecting data in systematic manipulation format.
Direct Replication
Repeating the exact experiment with the same (intra-subject) or similar subjects (inter-subject). When used with the same participant, allows for assessment of internal validity.
Experimental Design
A sequence of conditions that permit conclusions about whether the changes in behavior resulted from the intervention
External Validity
Extent to which intervention can be successfully applied to other people, other situations, or other behaviors. Also termed generality.
Functional Relation
When an independent variable lawfully affects a dependent variable
Inductive processes
Generating a hypothesis from data that has already been collected.
Integrity of the Independent Variable
Refers to the extent to which the treatment is implemented as intended.
Internal Validity
Whether or not changes in behavior can be attributed to the intervention. AB designs lack strong internal validity, but ABA or ABAB designs have strong internal validity.
Multiple Baseline (3)
Baseline data are collected on two or more subjects, situations, or behaviors. Intervention is applied to the first, and then the first and second, etc.
Multiple Probe
Multiple baseline design except that untreated behaviors are assessed periodically through probes until they receive the intervention.
Parametric Analysis
Studying different values or levels of a treatment. Can be accomplished by randomly presenting the different values in a ABCDEF design varied across participants -or- by presenting the values in an ascending/descending series in ABCDEDCBA design. This design is often used in drug studies.
Practical Issues with Alternating Treatments Design
Effects of one treatment can be seen in other conditions due to rapid alternation. If treatment procedures are not discriminable, differences may not be evident in data.
Practical Issues with Changing Criterion Design
Not all behaviors/treatments can be studied with this design. In some cases, a reinforcement parameter may be able to be varied.
Practical Issues with Multiple Baseline Design
Requires untreated behaviors, participants or settings which could be dangerous. Internal validity can be unclear when generalization occurs.
Practical Issues with Withdrawal & Reversal Designs
1. Requires counter-therapeutic change
2. Not appropriate for irreversible changes
3. SIB can be dangerous in this design
Rate/min issue
Rate/min is a measure of celeration. If a rate measure is needed, use # beh/min.
Reversal Design
A design in which an intervention is applied to behavior, then removed and a second intervention is applied to the same behavior (ex: NCR), and then the second intervention is removed and the first is re-applied.
Steady state
When data show no trend according to some criterion (e.g., no visible trend over 5 sessions)
Systematic Replication
Purposefully changing elements of the experiment and repeating the new experiment. Displays external validity or generality.
Threats to Internal Validity
Events that call into question whether the changes in behavior resulted from the treatment. Include maturation of the subject(s), inaccurate or biased recording, poor implementation of the treatment, unplanned environmental changes, etc.
Transition state
When there is a trend in the data, and there is presumably an ongoing behavioral process that is changing the strength of the behavior. Transition states occur between steady states.
Withdrawal Design
Design in which baseline conditions are alternated with intervention conditions. Minimum alternations are ABA or BAB.
Withdrawal with Probe Design
A standard ABAB design except the return to the A condition is very brief.
Yoking: between subject
Between subject yoking: when some parameter in a condition is used in another condition for a different subject (e.g., one subject, called the master, is responding under a FR 5 condition. When this subject earns a reinforcer, another subject receives a reinforcer. This would be used to generate a VT schedule for the "slave." ).
Yoking: within subject
Within subject yoking: when some parameter in a condition is used in another condition for a subject (e.g., the rate of reinforcement in a FR 5 condition is used to program a FT schedule in another condition).



Session #7 and Content Area #6




ABC recording

Recording antecedent, behavior, consequence streams. Used in descriptive assessments.
Accuracy
Presumed to be present when there is agreement between 2 trained observers. But more correctly, when data are consistent "true values."
Behavior Definitions
Observable and measurable description of behavior
Bias of partial interval recording, whole interval recording and momentary time sampling
Partial interval: overestimates rates, used for reduction targets
Whole interval: underestimates rates, used for acquisition skills
Momentary time sampling: no systematic bias
Celeration
A measure of the change in behavior over time (10/min --> 20/min = doubling)
Continuous vs. Sampling Recording
Continuous - uninterrupted observation and recording
Sampling - behavior observed and recorded occasionally
Descriptive analysis: limits
1. Sometimes inaccurate conclusions
2. Function might change over time
Descriptive analysis: strengths
1. Easy for practitioner
2. No risk
3. Little training is needed
Direct Observation
Observing behavior directly, instead of assessing through testing
Duration
Time between the beginning of a response and the end of that response
Duration Recording
Using some timing device, recording the length of time of the behavior/response
Event Recording
# of occurrences of a response are recorded.
Frequency
Number of times a behavior occurs (Ex: count)
Functional equivalence
When two or more behaviors have the same effect (they belong to the same operant). This concept is often used in identifying a replacement behavior.
Grooming
Grooming is when a person tries to ‘set up’ and ‘prepare’ another person to be the victim of sexual abuse.
Grooming: examples
1. giving inappropriate attention to childen
2. giving gifts
3. openly or accidentally exposing the victim to nudity and sexual material
4. sexualising physical contact, such as inappropriate tickling and wrestling
5. having inappropriate social boundaries (e.g., telling the potential victims about their own personal problems etc).
Intensity
Force of behavior, which could be measured in decibels (loudness) or lbs/sq in (pressure)
Inter-observer agreement (IOA)
Extent to which two observer's data agree. It is said to estimate accuracy.
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): exact count per interval
1. Divide observation time into intervals
2. Count # of intervals in which there is exact agreement
3. Compute IOA for each interval by the (# of exact agreements/# total intervals) x 100
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): mean count per interval
1. Divide observation time into intervals
2. Compute IOA for each interval by dividing (small/large) x 100
3. Average all interval IOA
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): total count
(Smaller count/larger count) X 100
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): Trial by trial
(# trials with agreement/# trials) x 100
IRT - Interresponse Time
Time between end of a response and the beginning of another response.
Latency
Duration of time between a stimulus and the beginning of response
Low rate behavior: why it occurs
The assumption is that the independent variables are low rate
Low rate/high intensity behavior: Behavior assessment procedures
1. Descriptive assessment
2. Present SD/EO
Low rate/high intensity behavior: measurement
1. Focus on precursors
2. Latency instead of rate
Matching equation
Equation that expresses a fundamental functional relation: the rate of response will be sensitive to the rate of reinforcement for that response as well as the rate of reinforcement for other responses
Equation:
R1 = r1
--------------- --------------
R1 + R2 r1 + r2
Matching equation: 2 ways to decrease R1
1) decrease the rate of reinforcement for R1 and 2) increase the rate of reinforcement for R2.
Momentary-Time Sampling
A recording procedure in which a time period is divided into bins. A "+" is recorded if the behavior occurs at the end of the bin. A "-" is recorded if behavior does not occur at the end of the bin. There is no systematic bias.
Motivational operation: distal
An MO that is temporally removed from a behavior - for example, several hours prior to the behavior that is strengthened.
Motivational operation: proximal
An MO that occurs close in time to a behavior
Narrative recording
On-line description of behavior, antecedents and consequences written in prose.
Observation Times for High Rate Behavior
Can be brief
Observation Times for Low Rate Behavior
Longer duration to catch the behavior
Observer drift
Tendency for an observer's recording to gradually change across time. It can be pinpointed to the time when an observer's scores differ from those of a 2nd observer. One cause is a change in response definition.
Partial Interval Recording
Recording procedure in which a time period is divided into bins. A "+" is recorded in each bin if a behavior occurs at all during that bin. A "-" is recorded if the behavior did not occur at all during that bin. This recording procedure tends to be an overestimate.
Pedophile
Attraction to pre-pubescent children
Percentage Correct
# of correct responses/ # of total responses, multiplied by 100
Permanent Product Recording
Recording the effects of the behavior, not the behavior itself (Ex: bed made)
Rate
#of responses/ time (Ex: responses/minute)
Reactivity
Extent to which the act of recording influences behavior (behavior changes when being observed)
Recalibration
Re-training an observer to increase accuracy, used to decrease/correct observer drift
Recording Procedures
Methods for recording behavior that produce data transposable into a measure
Reliability
Extent to which a given measurement result will be obtained with the same sample of behavior - consistency!
Response class covariation
Operants contain various topographies. If the strength of one member of the operant is changed by reinforcement or punishment, then the strength of the other members is changed as well.
Response class covariation: role in treating low rate/high intensity behavior
May focus on treating lower intensity behavior in same class.
Sexual offenders Tx: role of confederates
1. They can act as observers in situations where offenses have occurred
2. Confederate can entice the offender into situations where offenses have occurred
NOTE: confederates should never put anyone at risk!
Sexual offenders Tx: Example of manipulating MO
Give drugs (e.g., Depo-Provera) to reduce value of sexual stimuli
Sexual offenders Tx: Example of manipulating SD
1. Remove opportunity for contact with inapp sexual stimuli
2. Provide opportunities for contact with appropriate sexual stimuli
Sexual offenders: Advantage of Tx in community with supervision
1. Can see precursors with very little risk as long as supervised
Sexual offenders: Assessment methods
1. Records review
2. Interviews with person and others
3. Direct observation
4. Plethysmograph
Sexual offenders: Assessment problem with incarceration
No chance for the behavior to occur and be assessed
Sexual offenders: Assessment problem with outpatient Tx
Relies on self report
Sexual offenders: Drug Tx
Depo-Provera
Sexual offenders: Masturbatory reconditioning
1. Pairing of appropriate sexual images with arousal: Masturbate to appropriate sexual images
2. Pair inappropriate sexual images with no arousal: Imagine inappropriate images during refractory period
Training observers
Observers can be trained through explanation, video tapes, modeling and feedback. They can be calibrated using behaviors for which frequencies are known.
Trials to Criterion
Number of trials required for a behavior to meet some criterion (Ex: number of trials it takes to complete a task without error)
True Values
Data in which extraordinary measures have been taken to eliminate sources of error. True values hould approximate the true measure of the behavior in the sample.
Whole Interval Recording
A recording procedure in which a time period is divided into bins. A "+" is recorded if the behavior occurred during the entire bin. A "-" is recorded if the behavior did not occur during the entire bin. This recording tends to be an underestimate.



Session #8 and Content Area #7


2 ways of finding where the record floor goes on a standard chart?

1. Right hand axis
2. 1/# minutes
Bar Graphs (Histograms)
Graphs used to show the average # of behaviors or other measures such as # in a category. Not appropriate for showing daily frequencies in real time.
Characteristics of Graphed Data
Level, Trend and Variability
Condition Change Line
Vertical line on graphs to indicate change. Solid line for planned treatment/condition changes. Dashed line for unplanned environment changes (Ex: changes in staff).
Counting period floor (used to be called record floor)
# minutes spent observing
Cumulative Record
Graph that shows the cumulative number of responses over time. Rate of response is represented by the slope of the line.
Data
The results of measurement usually in a quantifiable form (e.g., # aggressions in a day, the rate of correct vs incorrect flash cards).
Data path
The line connecting two successive data points.
Escape/Avoidance hierarchy
A sequence of steps that increase in aversive properties. Used in "tolerance training"
Graph
Visual display of data, used for decision making and comparisons of different treatments
Horizontal Axis Label
Some unit of time (days, sessions, weeks, etc)
Ignored Day
A day wherein the behavior did have a chance to occur but no data were collected, thus, the previous data point and the one following are connected
Level
General height of the points, typically described by median/mean of points
No Chance Day
A day wherein the behavior could not occur, thus, the previous data point and the one following are not connected.
Positive programming for attention-maintained behavior
Mand, waiting, selecting alternatives, DRO/DRI, Premack Principle where attention is earned.
Positive programming for escape-maintained behavior
Mand, tolerance training, DRO/DRI, Premack Principle where break is earned.
Positive programming for tangible-maintained behavior
Mand, waiting, selecting alternatives, DRO/DRI, Premack Principle where tangible is earned.
Reinforcer in using escape/avoidance hierarchy
Removal from hierarchy or transition to previous step. Can also use positive reinforcers from preference assessment.
Right hand axis on Standard Chart
Time
Split Middle Method
Method for drawing a trend line. The line is drawn so that half of the data points fall above the line and half of the data points fall below the line.
Standard Chart: Celeration calculation
Rate of change, computed by drawing a best fit line and dividing the rates on 2 consecutive Sundays.
Standard Chart: Dark Vertical Lines
Sunday lines
Standard Chart: Duration Data Points Going Down
Duration is increasing
Standard Chart: Duration Data Points Going Up
Duration is decreasing
Standard Chart: Left hand Y Axis
Count per minute
Standard Chart: Rate Data Points Going Down
Rate is decreasing
Standard Chart: Rate Data Points Going Up
Rate is increasing
Standard Chart: Record Floor
Dash on a particular day that shows the duration the person was observed. Can be plotted by dividing 1/# min or using the right hand scale.
Standard Chart: X Axis
Calendar Days
Trend
Direction of the data points, described by a "trend line"
Variability
Extent to which the data points vary from day to day, often expressed as the range of data points. Range is the highest value - lowest value.
Vertical Axis Label
The measure of behavior
Y-axis on a standard chart
Count per minute
Equal interval graph
A graph in which one unit on the scale represents the same magnitude of change being measured across the whole range of the scale. For example, the distance on the graph between 1 and 2 is the same distance as between 50 and 51. Both are an increase of 1.
Semi-Log graph
1 scale is a log scale.
Log scale
The equal intervals are powers of 10: 101 to 10 squared is the same distance as between 10 squared to 10 cubed.
Content Area 8 and Class 10


Automatic reinforcement

Reinforcers produced by the behavior itself without the participation of people.
Behavioral explanation of self stim
The behavior is maintained by the production of sensory stimuli.
Behavioral Goal
Statement when behavioral program will be successful. Includes specific behaviors but not specific criteria for success. Should be age-appropriate.
Behavioral Objective (five elements)
Precise description of when a program will be successful: Includes measure, criterion for success, antecedent, behavior, and consequences (schedule of reinforcement) when the program is completed.
Choice Availability
Extent to which clients are given choices about their lives and events therein. When choices are provided, fewer problem behaviors may be exhibited.
Constructional Approach
Approach to decreasing inappropriate behavior by focusing on building new behaviors to replace inappropriate behaviors (replacement skills)
Differential reinforcement example of Tx of self stim
Reinforce appropriate playing with toys to decrease rocking.
Distal MO example
1. Child abused by visiting parent over weekend --> problem behavior Monday at school
EBD
Emotional behavioral disorder
EBD characteristics
1. Starts at age 6, but services are often delayed
2. Single parent homes
3. Low average IQ
4. School dropouts
5. Problems later in life, often criminal activity
Environmental Changes to Reduce the Need for Tx
Making changes in the environment that will reduce the need for a behavior program: find interesting job, satisfying places to live/recreate, network of friends, provide choices
EO example of Tx of self stim
Provide vibration toys to decrease head banging; self stim toys to decrease range of self stim
Example of changing curriculum to Tx behavior problem
1. Task difficulty linked to problem behavior --> reduce difficult tasks or teach mand for help
Fair Pair
1. ID the inappropriate behavior and program a procedure to directly decrease it
2. ID a replacement behavior and teach it
These 2 elements constitute a "fair pair"
Foundational Skills
Skill that must be taught before other skills can be taught
Functional Goals
Goals that will improve the life of the client and allow more independence and choice. If not accomplished, a caregiver will be required to perform the activity for the person.
Give an example of hypothesis testing as in the Eddie example
1. Hypothesis: Eddie had more problems in written than nonwritten work. Test: written and nonwritten work studied with ATD.
2. Hypothesis: Eddie had more problems in long than short tasks. Test: long and short tasks studied with ATD.
Intermediate outcomes
Goals that lead to ultimate outcomes Ex: learning to dress, ride the bus. Often involves the use of a behavioral objective
Program Design Relating to Implementers
Design the Tx while keeping in mind the contingencies controlling the implementers behavior: will Tx be monitored, will staff receive feedback, etc.
Protective equipment example of Tx of self stim
Use helmet to decrease face slapping that produces sensory stimuli.
Punishment example of Tx of self stim
1. Overcorrection
2. Timeout (but prevent self stim in timeout)
Recommendations Regarding Interventions
Consider: client preferences, task analysis info, client's current repertoire, supports available in environment, environmental constraints, social validity, assessments and best practice
Reinforcer Assessment Procedures
Test to see if the stimulus when presented contingent on a behavior, will increase the rate of the behavior - can use withdrawal design, reversal design, concurrent schedules
Schedule induced behavior
Behavior generated by schedule of reinforcement: aggression, excessive drinking are examples.
Self stim: how to identify in behavioral assessment
1. Undifferentiated data
2. Persistence in absence of social contingencies
3. Manipulate public consequences
4. Substitute similar activities to decrease it
Self stim: Theories
1. Produces sensory stimuli
2. Arousal theory
3. Social deprivation early in life
4. Changes in dopamine
Sensory extinction example of self stim
Disconnect light bulb to decrease flipping of light switch
Student assisted interview in assessment
Interview questions that student answers to assist in descriptive assessment.
Task analysis
Task in broken into smaller elements and elements are stated in their correct order
Ultimate outcomes
Goals that relate to health, safety, choice, access to positive reinforcers, avoiding aversive events and quality of life.
Weakening Behavior: Replacement skills
Select a replacement skill that is easy to emit and has the same function as the inappropriate behavior
Content Area 9 and Class 11


Adjusting Ratio

Ratio schedule in which size of the ratio increases as responding becomes more rapid and consistent, but decreases when responding deteriorates.
Alternative Schedule
A reinforcer is given when one of the two schedules is completed. There is only one response option. Food is given when Bill completes a FI1’ or FR 50, whichever comes first.
Artificial v.s. Natural Contingencies
Given a choice, a behavioral programmer should select contingencies that approximate those in the natural environment, rather than artificial contingencies. Where artificial contingencies must be used, however, they should be changed to more normal contingencies whenever possible.
Autoclitic
VB that is used to modify the effect of other VB on the listener ("You are moving really slowly" - really is the autoclitic)
Backup Reinforcer
A reinforcer that is obtained by exchanging a token for it in token systems
Backward Chaining
Teaching a sequence of responses by initially training the last response of the chain, the second to last and the last, etc. Reinforcer is delivered after the required number of steps are completed.
Behavioral Momentum: Applied
Applied: Following low probability directions can be increased when they are proceeded by several high probability directions with reinforcers delivered after each.
Behavioral Momentum: Laboratory
Laboratory: subjects behavior patterns and characteristics temporarily persist even when the contingencies are changed.
Behavioral Rehearsal
Practicing a skill under stimulated conditions that approximate those in the natural environment. Use the typical teaching techniques such as prompts, fading, chaining, and reinforcement.
Chain Schedule
Two or more schedules are presented successively each with its own signal. A reinforcer is given only at the end of the sequence (FR10-FI1’-VR20-Reinforcer)
Chaining
Systematically linking together individual skills into a larger chain of skills.
Concept Formation
Generalization within a class of stimuli and discrimination between classes. E.g.. Learning to identify all canines as dogs and learning to discriminate between dogs and cats
Concurrent Schedule (Conc)
Two or more schedules are available simultaneously that can be selected (choose to work in workshop or watch TV)
Conditioned suppression: ABA
When the signal of an upcoming aversive event is on (you are waiting in the Dr office), ongoing responding is suppressed (it is hard to have an intelligent conversation in the DR office).
Conditioned suppression: EAB
Animal responds under VI schedule for food. Periodically, a stimulus comes on and then is soon followed by a shock. When the stimulus is on, responding for food is suppressed.
Conjunctive Schedule (Conj)
A reinforcer is given when both of the two schedules are completed. There is only one response option. Food is given when Bill completes a FI 1’ and FR 50.
Contingency Contract
Agreement between client and programmer that states specific behaviors by the client and what consequences will be forthcoming for each behavior.
Contingent Effort
Any one of several procedures that involve requiring, contingent on a response, client to engage in an effortful activity.
Contingent Observation
Contingent on Behavior, the person is removed from ongoing activities and permitted to observe same.
Continuous Reinforcement
Refers to a FR1 schedule wherein every response produces a reinforcer
Delayed Imitation
When a person imitates a model, but the model is no longer present.
Delayed Prompts
Prompts are given after a period of time elapses after the SD (gives the person a chance to perform independently)
Differential Reinforcement
When a reinforcement contingency depends on 1. presence or absence of a feature of a response, as in response differentiation -or- 2. the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus, as in discrimination training
Direct Instruction
A method of teaching material such as reading and math that involves scripted presentations, active student participation, and immediate feedback from the teacher.
DRA
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior. Reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a fixed amount of time. The response is chosen because it is an alternative to the target behavior but not necessarily incompatible.
DRH
Differential Reinforcement of High Rates of Behaviors. Reinforcer is delivered for more than a fixed number of responses in a time period -or- Reinforcer is delivered after an IRT less than some criterion amount of time. Used to increase behavior.
DRI
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior. Reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a fixed amount of time. The response is chosen because it is incompatible with the target behavior.
DRL
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior. Reinforcer is delivered for no more than a fixed number of responses in a time period -or- Reinforcer is delivered after an IRT greater than some criterion amount of time. Used to decrease behavior.
DRO
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. Reinforcer is delivered when a response does not occur for a fixed (or varied in VDRO) amount of time.
DRO: Momentary
MDRO 5 min = observe person after 5 minutes, and if the decel target behavior is not occurring at the moment, then deliver some stimulus
Echoic (controlling variables)
Verbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR. PTP and similar forms.
Errorless Discrimination
Teaching Discrimination with few or no errors. Ex: Fading in S-delta (incorrect stimulus) -or- superimposing a new set of stimuli on an already learned discrimination then fading out the already learned stimuli
Example of verbal behavior under multiple control (e.g., impure tact)
Kid who tacts "paper" that is evoked by specific EO.
Exclusion Timeout
Timeout from reinforcement in which the person is removed from the immediate situation, but kept in the general area.
Extinction-Induced Aggression
Aggressive behavior that occurs when a behavior is being extinguished.
Extra-stimulus Prompts
Those prompts that are "outside" the SD, such as physical guidance, to prompt hand washing
Facial Screening
Briefly covering the eyes or restricting visual input in some way, contingent on a behavior
Fading
The gradual withdrawal of prompts, such that the SD alone evokes the desired behavior
Feedback
Providing information contingent on a behavior. Can function as reinforcement or punishment, depending on the nature of the information.
FI- Fixed Interval
Reinforcer delivered after the first response after a fixed amount of time has elapsed. Produces a scalloped rate of responding
Forced Choice Preference Assessment
Present pairs of reinforcers and note which is selected. Pair each reinforcer with all others on the list of possible reinforcers.
Forward Chaining
Teaching a sequence of responses by initially training the first response of the chain, then the first and second, etc. Reinforcer is presented after the required number of steps are completed.
FR-Fixed Ratio
Reinforcer delivered after fixed number of responses. Produces steady, high rate of response with pauses after reinforcement
FT- Fixed Time
A reinforcer is delivered after a fixed time , irrespective of behavior.
General case analysis
When training for generalization, including all relevant stimuli/responses that might be encountered. For example, when training hand washing, all possible sink/soap combinations might be trained to prepare the person.
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer
Reinforcer that is effective in many situations because it can be exchanged for a wide variety of backup reinforcers. Ex: tokens, money
Generalized Imitation
Imitation skills that will occur even to untrained models.
Graduated Guidance
Give prompts were they are required, but immediately fade when a person begins to perform the response
Incidental learning
Learning that occurs in naturally occurring activities, not as a result of programmed, artificial learning trials.
Independent Group Contingency
Reinforcer is available for any person whose behavior meets a criterion
Instructions
Verbal descriptions of behavior and antecedents/consequences.
Interdependent Group Contingency
Reinforcer is available if all people in the group meet a minimum criterion -or- the group's overall performance meets a criterion
Intraverbal (controlling variables)
Verbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR. No PTP correspondence of stimulus and response
Isolation Timeout
A timeout from reinforcement in which the person is placed in another location away from others
Kinds of Prompts
Physical guidance, gestural, written, verbal, imitation (modeling)
Learn unit
A concept in instruction in which the teacher presents an SD, there is active student responding, and the teacher provides feedback to the student. Ideally, learn units should occur frequently.
Least-to-Most Prompting
Give SD and then wait for response to be performed. If it is not, give the least intrusive prompt first, then second least intrusive, etc.
Lesch-Nyhan
A genetic syndrome characterized by:
1. Serious biting or other SIB
2. CP
3 Hyperuricemia
Lesch-Nyhan-role of response blocking
May be a reinforcer
Level Systems (sometimes called molar system)
Level System wherein clients begin at bottom level and then work their way up to higher levels. Each level has its own behavioral criteria for entry and its own collection of reinforcers.
Limited Hold
When reinforcer is available for the next response, that response has a limited amount of time to occur or the reinforcer is lost (FI 1’ LH10”)
Maintenance
Extent to which a procedure can produce durable changes in behavior -or- a phase of acquisition that uses specially designed procedures to maintain an already-learned response
Maintenance procedures
1. Thin schedules of reinforcement to increase RTE
2. Use natural reinforcers and stimuli
3. Train to fluency
Mand (controlling variables)
EO determines form + audience (SD) + specific reinforcer
Meaning of a word
Variables responsible for its emission.
Mixed Schedule
Two or more independent schedules that are presented successively but each does not have its own signal. Independent schedules are those that program their own schedule of reinforcement. (Mix FR 10 FI 2')
Model
Some antecedent stimulus that is topographically identical to the behavior to be strengthened
Model Characteristics
Characteristics that might influence whether a model's behavior will be imitated: model similarity, prestige of model, emphasis on modeled behaviors, how nurturing the model is, and instructions.
Modeling
Providing a model for another person to imitate.
Momentary DRO
DRO schedule in which reinforcer is delivered if the target behavior is not occurring at the moment the DRO interval terminates.
Most-to-Least Prompting
Present the prompt at maximum intensity, and gradually use a less intense prompt over successive trials.
Multiple Schedule (Mult)
Two or more schedules that are presented successively each with their own signal (1st period has FR10 attention for tasks, 2nd period with different teacher has Ext for task completion). (Mult FR 10 Ext)
Negative Contrast
Behavior in a changed situation increases, resulting in a decrease of the behavior in an unchanged situation.
Negative Practice
Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring client to engage in that behavior repeatedly. Has been used in smoking cessation.
Observation in preference assessment
Observe a person in free time and record what they do
Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)
Material is broken down into units and each unit has its own study objectives. Students work at their own pace, study the material and then take an exam. Students must meet mastery criterion on an exam and may re-take exams until criterion is met.
Planned Ignoring
Behavior maintained by social reinforcers, and such reinforcers are withheld for a given period of time contingent on the behaviors.
Polydipsia
Excessive drinking - generated by schedules of food delivery. Rats under a FT 1 min schedule will drink up to 4-5 times their body weight in water. Also seen in FI schedules.
Positive Contrast
Behavior in a changed situation decreases, resulting in an increase of the behavior in an unchanged situation. Typically, the behavior in the changed situation is decreased with extinction or punishment.
Positive Practice Overcorrection
Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring person to practice the appropriate behavior that should have occurred. Ex: if a child wets his pants, he will then practice standing up and walking to the bathroom.
Post-Reinforcement Pause
A brief pause of responding immediately after reinforcement under fixed-ratio or variable ratio schedules. Is sometimes called the pre-ratio pause, as the pause duration is determined by the size of the upcoming ratio.
Precision Teaching
Using behavioral teaching methods and the standard chart to track progress and make Tx decisions.
Predictability
Used in behavior programs to decrease problem behavior. This can involve written or picture schedules of upcoming events.
Preference assessment: Forced choice
Present person with pairs of reinforcers, and note which one is selected. Pair each reinforcer with all of the others on the list of possible reinforcers. Graph the # times each item is selected.
Preference assessment: Multiple stimulus
Multiple stimulus with (or without) replacement – present an array and record how often an item is selected. The without replacement can be used to rank order preference.
Preference assessment: Single stimulus
Present a single stimulus, and see if person contacts it. Or, record the latency or duration of contact.
Preference Assessment: Types
1. Interviews
2. Free operant - see what person contacts in free time
2. Single stimulus
3. Forced choice
4. Arrays with/without replacement
Premack Principle
Procedure in which high probability behavior can be used to reinforce low probability behavior and low probability behavior can be used to punish high probability behavior
Probe Trials
A method of measuring generalization in which the behavior is measured in untrained situations.
Procedural integrity DV
The typical DV is % of competencies correctly displayed.
Progressive Ratio
Ratio Schedule in which the ratio size gradually increases over time. This schedule is sometimes used to assess reinforcer effectiveness. To do so, the "break point" is identified - when the organism stops responding.
Progressive ratio break point
In a PR schedule, the break point is the last ratio size completed before the organism stops responding. In reinforcer assessments, the higher the break point, the more effective is the reinforcer.
Progressive Relaxation
Technique of relaxation wherein the person relaxes various muscle groups. When completed, the person is able to totally relax all major muscle groups under the control of a cue.
Prompts
An extra antecedent stimulus that is used to evoke a behavior such that it can then be reinforced
Public Commitment
Person designing his/her own self-control program enlisting the contingency management support of friends or family.
Punishment Guidelines for Efficacy (7 guidelines)
a. Immediate after the target behavior
b. Consistent- punish every response (FR1)
c. Provide alternative behavior that obtains same reinforcer
d. Do not allow reinforcer to follow to closely after punisher
e. Use High Intensity Punisher
f. Withhold all reinforcers that can be produced by the target behavior
g. Punisher should be linked to assessment data.
Punishment Side Effects (x5)
a. Escape from the punishing agent
b. Aggression towards punishing agent
c. Emotional behavior
d. Modeling by observers
e. Inappropriate generalization – person afraid to do anything.
Rank Order Preferences
Analyze choices to determine the most and least preferred items. Formula is # times an item is selected divided by total number of pairs in which the item appeared then multiply the total by 100.
Ratio Strain
A decrease in responding under a ratio schedule because ratio size is too large or was increased to rapidly
Reducing a response using matching law
1. Decrease rate of reinforcement for the response
2. Increase rate of reinforcement for other responses
Reflexivity
If A=A, then A=A
Rehearsal
Practicing a behavior to be learned
Reinforcer Menu
A visual display of several reinforcers from which the person may choose
Reinforcer Sampling
Requiring a person to sample various reinforcers, such that he/she has sufficient experience with them to choose the preferred reinforcer
Reinforcer Survey
Ask people about their preferences. Now more correctly referred as a preference assessment.
Relation between reinforcer effectiveness and delay, amount, quality, deprivation, and variety.
Reinforcer effectiveness increases with shorter delay, larger amounts, higher quality, greater deprivation, and greater variety.
Required Relaxation
Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring person to lie down and relax in quiet area for a period of time.
Resistance to extinction: schedule effects
Extinction after dense schedules (FR 1): rapid. Extinction after lean schedules (VR 100): slow
Response Cost
Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, the removal of a reinforcing object (radio, token, magazine).
Response Deprivation Procedures
Procedure that involves depriving an organism of the opportunity to emit a response and then using the opportunity to emit the response as a potential reinforcer for other behavior.
Response Differentiation
A use of differential reinforcement to change a characteristic of behavior. For example, a father may only listen to his son when the son talks about sports. As a result, the son frequently talks sports.
Response Generalization
Effects of some contingency spread to responses not yet associated with the contingency.
Restitutional Overcorrection
Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring the person to restore the environment to a condition superior to that before the behavior occurred.
Rules for Designing a Token System
1. base it on functional assessments
2. ID tokens that are easily used
3. ID target behaviors and rules for obtaining tokens
4. ID schedule of token exchange
5. ID how tokens will be conditioned as reinforcers
6. field test the system and fine tune as needed
Schedule Induced (adjunctive) Behavior.
Behavior that seems to appear because it is under a schedule of reinforcement. E.g. Some organisms will exhibit aggression under FR 50 schedules of food delivery, rats will exhibit copious drinking when exposed to FI 1 schedules of food delivery.
Schedule induced aggression example
Pigeons responding under an FR 100 schedule of food delivery will aggress towards other pigeons upon the offset of access to food.
Schedule of reinforcement
A rule that specifies when a reinforcer will be delivered.
Schedule Thinning
Gradually decreasing the rate of reinforcement. In a FR schedule, the FR size increases. In a FI schedule, the time requirement increases.
Self Control
Involves procedures that are implemented by the client. Typically requires some external source of contingency management.
Self Management
Another term for self control. The person actively participates in the recording, goal setting, or reinforcement procedures.
Self-Punishment
Client decides if their behavior meets criteria for punishment and delivers the punisher (or arranges for its delivery) if it does.
Self-Recording
Client decides if and when their own behavior meets a criterion, and then recording the behavior if it does.
Self-reinforcement
Clients decides if behavior meets criteria for reinforcement and delivers the reinforcer (or arranges for its delivery) if it does.
Shadowing
When the trainer moves his/ her hands along with the client's hands as he performs the skill.
Shaping
Gradually changing the form or topography of a behavior by reinforcing successive approximations to the correct response
Side Effects of Negative Reinforcement
Similar to punishment side effects: escape from aversive stimuli, aggression, emotional behavior, etc.
Side Effects of Positive Reinforcement
Schedule-induced aggression, frequent requests for reinforcer (nagging), "shadowing" the source of reinforcement, attempts to escape schedule when the requirements are high (e.g., high FR schedules).
Simple Schedules of Reinforcement
Single schedules such as FR, VR, FI, VI, FT, VT
Simultaneous prompts
Prompts are given at the same time or just after the SD
Social Validity
Whether goals, procedures, and outcomes are acceptable. This can be determined by asking community members, experts, competent individuals, family or the client.
Spatial Fading
Gradually changing the spatial locus of a prompt during fading. E.g. going from hand, to wrist, to forearm, etc.
Stimulus Equivalence
When a class of stimuli evoke the same responses or more generally have the same effects on behavior. Stimuli that evoke the response "dog" include 1. word dog 2. picture of dog 3. sight of dog 4. sound of dog barking
Stimulus Generalization
Effects of some contingency spread to stimuli that have not been associated with the contingency.
Stimulus Over-Selectivity
The tendency of lower functioning individuals to attend to one and only one element of a complex SD. With a red A and blue B, the individual may only attend to the colors and fail to attend to the letters.
Stimulus Shaping
Involves transfer of stimulus control from an already effective stimulus to a new stimulus. E.g. using two apples to teach number 2 and then fading them into the number 2.
Superstitious Behavior
Behavior that occurs as a result of "accidental" or adventitious reinforcement. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it.
Symmetry
If A=B, then B=A
Tact (controlling variables)
Nonverbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR
Tact extensions
Generic, metaphor, metonomy, solistic - degrees of generalization of the tact
Tandem Schedule
Two or more schedules that are presented successively, but there is no signal for each. A reinforcer is given only at the end of the sequence
Target Setting
Setting to which a client will be placed after behavioral programming has finished. Setting to which generalization efforts are directed
Task interspersal
In instruction, difficult tasks should be presented and interspersed with easier tasks (such as maintenance tasks).
Task Variation
The extent to which tasks are varied in a block of time. There is some research that suggests rapidly varying the tasks may engender improved learning.
Teaching VB using transfer of stimulus control
1. Teach echoics or textuals
2. Use echoics or textuals as prompts when teaching mands, tacks, intraverbals
3. Fade use of echoics or textuals as prompts
Textual (controlling variables)
Verbal stimulus determines form + audience (SD) + GCR. PTP correspondence but dissimilar forms
Timeout
Time out from reinforcement – signaling the removal of opportunity to earn reinforcement for a period of time, contingent on inappropriate behavior.
Tokens
Generalized conditioned reinforcers that when earned can be exchanged for other reinforcers, or backup reinforcers. Benefits: quickly & easily delivered, exchanged for a variety of backup reinforcers.
Total Task Training
When an entire task is trained at once, instead of implementing a chaining procedure. Usually includes graduated guidance
Train Loosely for Generalization
During training, vary the environment such that there is not narrow stimulus control over the skill. This procedure tends to flatten the generalization gradient.
Transfer of Stimulus Control
When one stimulus can evoke a response, and then that capacity is transferred to a second stimulus
Transitivity
If A=B and B=C, then A=C
Verbal behavior
Behavior that is reinforced with the mediation of another person
VI-Variable Interval
Reinforcement delivered after the first response after an average amount of time has elapsed. Produces a steady, medium rate of response with little pausing.
VR-Variable Ratio
Reinforcement delivered after average number of responses. Produces a steady, very high rate of response with brief, if any, pauses after reinforcement
VT- Variable Time
A reinforcer is delivered after a variable amount of time (average) irrespective of behavior.
Ways to Encourage Maintenance (6 ways)
1. train to fluency
2. use naturally occurring stimuli
3. fade out artificial stimuli
4. use delayed consequences
5. use self-control repertoires
6. use intermittent schedules of reinforcement
Ways to Program Generalization (8 ways)
1. Instructions – train a response and give instruction to encourage generalization
2. Train in many stimulus conditions.
3. Design supportive environment-untrained situations.
4. Train loosely
5. Program common stimuli
6. Delayed/intermittent reinforcement
7. Self Management
8. Use a variety of prosthetic devices for response generalization
Within-stimulus Prompts
Those prompts that are contained within the SD, such as isolating and exaggerating the critical difference between an "E" and "F"